Probably more for my own amusement (especially in a year’s time) than for anyone else’s, and in an attempt to document the evolution of my aesthetics, I here give a summary of my own 2008, in screenshots.

The wallpapers I use for my desktops generally reflect my mood, and have some special significance for me at the time. What follows is therefore not just a collection of screenshots, but a reflection of what has been on my mind the last year. Not all the screenshots I’ve taken the past year are here. I’ve left out the odd desktops (like this one or this one) that didn’t last very long.

The screenshots are arranged per computer, roughly chronologically. Yantra is my main computer, on which I do most of my work. Grantha is the computer at my office. Mitra is the old Dell Inspiron 2500 laptop I wrote about earlier.

Most of the screenshots are of Openbox, which I started using in early 2007 (if my memory serves me well…). By the end of 2007, I discovered Pekwm and used that window manager almost exclusively for a few months in the beginning of 2008. In the summer, I started experimenting with Awesome 2.3, which became the standard window manager on one of my computers (mitra), and which I use frequently on another (yantra). All of these screenshots are of Debian or Ubuntu systems. Early in 2008, grantha still ran Windows XP, but that now runs Debian Testing (lenny). One of the early mitra screenshots may be one of Arch Linux, which I had installed on that laptop for a few weeks when I just started using it.

I’ve been using the same themes on grantha and mitra for months now (see the last screenshots for both). The themes on yantra tend to change more often, though I’ve been alternating a lot the last few months between the Children of the Earth themes and the Mythos theme.

I’ve had a lot of dark desktops this year, and have used a couple of dark Gtk themes often (Royalty, Mythos and Eidolon). It really is very pleasant on the eyes, especially at night, even if not all websites go well with it.

For all of you with a slow internet connection: know that this is quite a lengthy post, with more than 40 300×225 thumbnails!

Read the rest of this entry »

Changing the size of BBdock

December 2, 2008

EDIT: It turns out that all this can be accomplished in a much easier way by launching BBdock with the command “bbdock -d 24×24” (or width x height), as David mentions in the first comment to this post. Oh well… :-)

BBdock, one of the many useful little applications created to work with Blackbox, is a handy application launcher or dock. Though created for Blackbox and not updated in a few years, it can be used in any window manager that has a place to load dockapps, such as Openbox or Fluxbox. It is entirely configurable in a single text file (~/.bbdockrc). You can any .png file you want for the icons, and BBdock is able to raise applications you have already launched, instead of launching a new one.

The only downside to BBdock is its size. The default icon size it uses is the standard 64×64 of WindowMaker dockapps. Even if you use smaller image files, the dock itself will remain at that clunky size.

Luckily, this is not very hard to change. I prefer to have icons of 24×24, so that BBdock integrates nicely with lal, and bbpager (another one of the BBtools). Here is picture of BBdock and some other dockapps running in Openbox:


BBdock, lal, BBpager, and docker in Openbox 3.4.7

So, how do you change the default size? You’ll need to edit the source code and then compile that, so start by downloading the source code from the BBdock website:


Extract the archive, and move into the src directory of the newly extracted tarbal:

	tar xzf bbdock-0.2.8.tar.gz
	cd bbdock-0.2.8/src

Next, you’ll have to edit the Dock.hh file:

	nano Dock.hh

Search for the slotwidth( 64 ) and slotheight( 64 ) values (they should be on line 116-117), and change them to whatever size you’d prefer BBdock to use for its icons (I chose a square of 24×24):

	Settings() :
	   slotwidth( 24 ),
	   slotheight( 24 ),

Save the file and exit. Now you can compile the source code in the usual way. First install the necessary dependencies (make sure you have the source (deb-src) urls enabled in /etc/apt/sources.list!):

	sudo apt-get build-dep bbdock

Move back into the root directory of the source code, compile and install BBdock:

	cd ..
	sudo make install

(Use sudo checkinstall if you’d like to create a .deb package of the source code and install that, so that you can remove it easily later on through apt, aptitude or Synaptic)

If the installation is successful, the default icon size will be 24×24 (or whatever else you specified). Note that this size is static; even if you use smaller or bigger images, the size will remain the same.

To configure BBdock, create and edit the ~/.bbdockrc file. Each line in that file configures an icon in bbdock. You first specify the path to the icon file, followed by the command BBdock should execute when you click on the icon. If you’d like BBdock to raise applications that have already been launched instead of raising a new instance, you can specify that too. Here are some examples from my ~/.bbdockrc:

	~/.icons/bbdock/window.png:xte 'key Pause'::

The first icon uses xte to simulate a keypress of the PrintScreen key, which I have configured in Openbox’s rc.xml to launch the client-list-combined-menu which shows all running applications on all desktops. The second icon will launch a new instance of Mousepad whenever I click the icon, and the third icon will launch Opera or raise an already running instance of Opera.

Due to some rather complex circumstances, I’ve been using an old Dell Inspiron 2500 laptop as my main working computer for a few months now. I received the laptop from a friend who no longer had any need for it, but apart from a badly damaged exterior casing the laptop is fine. It is about 8 years old, and has a Pentium III processor and 128 RAM. When I received the computer, it ran Windows 98, which I replaced initially with Arch Linux and later, when I realised some odd problems were actually caused by Arch and not the computer, with a command-line install of Ubuntu Hardy (8.04).

The computer runs great now. I used sysv-rc-conf and some of K.Mandla’s speed tips to make the machine boot up faster and be more responsive. Even while running Arch, though, the computer ran rather slowly when I tried using the light(er)-weight applications with a graphical user interface I normally use. Thunar and Mousepad, my favourite graphical file manager and text editor respectively, both rather light themselves, took a long time to load or close. What to speak of heavier applications like OpenOffice, or graphical audio players! Multitasking became nearly impossible (unless I decided to make a cup of tea while I waited for another application to load!).

It was obvious that the best way to make good use of this computer was to use light command-line applications. Command-line applications are nothing new to me. I’ve been using several of them for a long time: cplay, htop (hiding the duplicate entries through F2 > Display settings > Hide userland threads), nano, rtorrent, alsamixer, and so on. But this dear Dell laptop required a more radical approach: if I was going to be productive on this computer (and I had to!), I had to minimize my use of applications with a graphical user interface and perform my main tasks from the command line. This was a lot less hard than you may think, and after a few months of working with those command-line applications on that laptop it is sometimes hard to look back. I’ve (re)discovered many great applications, and am using some of those ultra light weight applications now also on my computer at work — a strong beast that could even handle CompizFusion if I wanted it to.

Below are a few of the applications that I’ve been using over the last few months, as well as some settings I changed to make working with command-line applications easier. What follows is a record of what I’ve been doing that offers some help to you for achieving the same thing. All of it works fine on my Dell laptop running Ubuntu 8.04, but I can’t guarantee it works on every computer (or other distros). As usual, the man pages are your friend.

Window manager

Since most of my applications would be run in a terminal and I would therefore use the mouse a lot less, I wanted a window manager that could manage my terminals well and that allowed me maximum control through my keyboard, but one that also looked decently. I’ve been using the tiling window manager Awesome for a while now, and that seemed like the best option to use. Openbox ran a bit slower on that laptop, so the speed advantage Awesome gave me was also welcome. To not waste any additional resources on a session manager, I did not install any and start my window manager with startx and .xinitrc (if you have no idea how to do this, have a look at this page on the Ubuntu Wiki).

Here is a screenshot of Awesome in action with several running applications:

Awesome 2.3.4 with (clockwise) mocp, alpine and canto

Working with the consoles

Over the years, I’ve learned to work with the consoles (tty1-6, press Ctrl-Alt F1-6 to view them). Even when you use an X window manager, these consoles come in handy when you want to keep an application running even when you log out in X (and you are not using screen), or to keep something running in the background. To have six of them is a bit much for most users, though, and what is the point of keeping something running when you never use it? So I first disabled all but three of them, by editing the tty* files in /etc/event.d/. In that directory you should have 6 tty files (tty1, tty2, tty3, tty4, etc.). Open the ones you don’t want to use (in my case tty4-6) and comment all lines, so that it looks like this:

	# tty5 - getty
	# This service maintains a getty on tty5 from the point the system is
	# started until it is shut down again.

	#start on runlevel 2
	#start on runlevel 3

	#stop on runlevel 0
	#stop on runlevel 1
	#stop on runlevel 4
	#stop on runlevel 5
	#stop on runlevel 6

	#exec /sbin/getty 38400 tty5

When you reboot, you should only have access to the getty consoles you did not disable. Your X-server should load on the next available console (Ctrl-Alt-F4 in my case). You will not notice a big improvement in speed or responsiveness (at least I didn’t), but it feels good to me to not load anything that I won’t use anyway.

Ubuntu is not very good in choosing the best VGA resolution for my consoles (Arch is much better in that!). How do you change it and make those big ugly fonts a little smaller? First of all, you need to find your best VGA resolution, for example here. Then edit your grub menu file (nano -B /boot/grub/menu.lst) and specify what vga resolution should be applied at the end of your kernel line. It should look something like this (Don’t copy and past this! I’ve cut out part of the kernel line so it would all be visible here):

	title		Ubuntu 8.04, kernel 2.6.24-18-generic
	root		(hd0,0)
	kernel		/boot/vmlinuz [...] ro quiet vga=792
	initrd		/boot/initrd.img-2.6.24-18-generic

Now, how do you change the font? In Ubuntu, you can do this in two ways. If you just want to change the console font temporarily, you can do so with a command like this:

	consolechars -f Lat2-Terminus16.psf

This will set the console font to Lat2-Terminus, size 16. The font types and sizes you can use are limited, however. You need to look in /usr/share/consolefonts/ to see what fonts you have available. If you need a different encoding or are looking for a different font style, there are several console font packages in the Ubuntu repositories that you can install (do a search for “console fonts” in apt or Synaptic). For more information on consolechars, see the man page (man consolechars).

This first method is useful if you want to see what a font looks like on the console without having to reboot. Once you’ve decided on a font and size you want to use, you’ll probably want to make the changes permanent. To do so, edit the /etc/default/console-setup file and edit it accordingly. The lines you are especially interested in are the following:


This sets the VGA font, in the Lat15 encoding, with size 14. Note that you can only specify fonts here that you have installed in /usr/share/consolefonts/. The example I give here points to the Lat15-VGA14.psf.gz package in that directory.

Reboot your system, and you should have a nicer resolution and nicer fonts on the console (note the font is only applied later in the boot sequence).

Window managers for the console?

While the tty consoles are useful, if you plan to use them extensively you’ll need a “window manager” for the console, so you can have more than one application running in each console. There are several available.

GNU Screen is probably the most popular one, and it is easy to see why. It is very versatile and offers you a lot of control. You can detach ‘windows’ and reattach them later, exiting screen does not terminate processes launched in screen, it has a handy status bar that you can customize to your liking, etc. The Screen homepage will probably not make you much wiser, but there is plenty of good documentation available on the internet to get you started (see for example here or (more elaborately) here).

My current favourite, however is dvtm, the “dynamic virtual terminal manager”, a tiling window manager for the console inspired by dwm. You can switch between different modes (maximized, vertical tiling, bottom tiling, or grid)and you (in true dwm spirit) can change the default configuration if you desire by editing the source code (which isn’t as hard as it sounds) and recompiling dvtm. The documentation found on the project’s home page should be good enough to get you started with dvtm.

Terminal emulator

When running command-line applications in X, you’ll need a terminal emulator. I’ve always liked the ease of xfce4-terminal, but that was a bit too sluggish on this computer. I wanted a light terminal that allowed tabbing, and finally returned to urxvt (rxvt-unicode), a terminal I had used in the past but had never given enough time.

Urxvt is a nifty terminal. It is light, but very feature rich: read the very long man page to see its potential. It can tint unfocussed terminals (very handy in a tiling window manager!), it supports tabs, its behaviour colours are easily configurable through your ~/.Xdefaults file, and it supports transparency if that is your thing.

Here is the relevant portion of my .Xdefaults file:

	###  urxvt  ###
	URxvt*font:		xft:DejaVu Sans Mono:size=7:VL Gothic:antialias=true:hinting=true
	URxvt*boldFont: 	xft:DejaVu Sans Mono:size=7:antialias=true:hinting=true:style=bold
	URxvt*background:	#08090A
	URxvt*foreground:	#4b555e
	URxvt*color0:		#08090A
	URxvt*color1:		#4b555e
	URxvt*color2:		#8fa1b2
	URxvt*color3:		#4b555e
	URxvt*fading:    	10
	URxvt*tintColor: 	#FCFCFC
	URxvt*shading:    	100
	URxvt*inheritPixmap: 	False
	URxvt*cursorBlink:      False
	URxvt*cutchars:		`'",;@&*=|?()[]{}

	URxvt*scrollstyle:	plain
	URxvt*mouseWheelScrollPage:	False
	URxvt*jumpScroll:       False
	URxvt*skipScroll:       False
	URxvt*scrollBar: 	False
	URxvt*scrollTtyOutput:	False
	URxvt*secondaryScroll:	False

	URxvt.perl-ext-common:	default,tabbed
	URxvt.tabbed.tabbar-fg:         1
	URxvt.tabbed.tabbar-bg:         0            0            1

	URxvt*urlLauncher:	opera
	URxvt*saveLines::       32767

To enable tabs, you need the URxvt.perl-ext-common: default,tabbed line. The lines specify what colours the fore- and background of the tabs and tabbar will be; the numbers given here (in this case 1 and 0) refer to the colour numbers specified earlier (URxvt*color0, etc.). To open a new tab, press Shift+Down, to switch between tabs press Shift+Left/Right.


I’ve been tempted to try zsh as an alternative to bash ever since reading this post a few months ago. Though I’ve been told in several places that zsh is slower than bash, my experience is the opposite. Bash was very slow in starting on this laptop, which lead me to try out a different shell. Zsh, on the other hand, is fast and snappy: it loads almost immediately when a terminal is launched.

Zsh is a great shell, and one that is easy to transition to as you can use most of your bash aliases in zsh. But zsh offers so much more than bash: its autocompletion is miles better than bash’s (it has menus!), it can autocorrect spelling mistakes, you can share history across sessions, and much more. I admit that I don’t use many of the great features that zsh has, but its autocompletion, autocorrection and better history management are reasons enough to stick with it. Adjusting to zsh has, so far, been very easy. In my daily usage of the shell, I have everything I liked about bash and a few more things. The main difficulty has been configuring zsh, but for that there is plenty of good information available online. It is probably best to find someone else’s zshrc file and modify that to your liking. My configuration file is here.

Zsh is in the repositories, so you can easily install it through aptitude (sudo aptitude install zsh). To make it your default shell and replace bash, use the following command:

	chsh -s /bin/zsh USERNAME

This will make zsh the default shell for the username you specify. You’ll need to log out and back in to apply the changes.

Zsh has a lot of great features that make working on the command-line so much easier. You can find great tips online (see here and here for example), so there is no need for me to repeat that here.

File manager

As I mentioned earlier, my beloved Thunar was a bit too big for my new old Dell laptop, and it took me a while to let go of it. But with every 12 seconds (average) it took to launch Thunar, my detachment increased, and after a week or so I resolved to look for a lighter, command-line file manager. That search was over really quickly! I briefly experimented with clex and fdclone (as well as some of the ugly graphical file managers such as Gentoo), but it became very quickly apparent that there is no better command-line file manager than Midnight Commander (mc).

Midnight Commander running in urxvt

Midnight Commander is a very powerful dual-paned file manager. It has something of a learning curve (don’t all good applications), especially if you are used to point-and-click graphical file managers, but once you know your way around it, you’ll be glad you invested the time and energy. If run in X, you can use your mouse with MC, but you’ll only see the real potential of this file manager when you learn to control it from the keyboard. This manual and this article helped me enormously in familiarizing myself with MC, and I created a much used little ‘cheat sheet’ for myself with the most commonly used keybindings to help me learn them.

MC is themeable; you can change the colours of every aspect through the ~/.mc/ini file (if you don’t have one, run MC and in the Option menu select “Save Settings”). Note that you need to edit this file while MC is not running; MC writes to this file when it exits, thus disabling anything you’ve changed while MC was running. At the bottom of that file, you can specify the colour settings MC should use. Have a look at my configuration file to figure out how to do this. The possible colours are limited: black, red, green, brightgreen, brown, yellow, blue, brightblue, magenta, brightmagenta, cyan, brightcyan, lightgray and white.

If you want to properly view .odt, .pdf, or .doc files in MC with the F3 View command, you should install several other applications that MC can use:

	sudo aptitude install antiword poppler-utils o3read

Once I realised how much faster Midnight Commander copies files than any graphical file manager I’ve used, I started using MC also at work, alongside my much beloved Thunar.

Text editor

My default text editor is nano at the moment. It is nice and simple and is good enough for most of the simple editing I do at the moment. That it shares many keybindings with alpine, my email client, is a handy benefit.

Unfortunately, nano is not the best tool to edit complex text files. Since I spend most of my time on the computer writing, I need something with a little more bling. So far I’ve been using OpenOffice (Abiword just isn’t good enough) and Gedit with the Latex plugin, but I’ve also started to experiment with Vim and Vim-Latex.

Though Vim has a reputation of being an editor with a steep learning curve, I haven’t had much difficulty with it so far. On the contrary, I’ve found it to be rather easy to learn. Vim comes with a great tutorial, called vimtutor, that helps you to learn Vim not by cramming keybindings and commands, but by working with those commands. The tutorial lasts about half and hour (depending on how much time you take for it), and after that you should be familiar with all the basics. There are also several good tutorials online (here and here for example) when you require more than vimtutor covers.

Audio player

There is no lack of command-line audio players, and many of them are well known. If you are looking for an audio player that fetches album art, lets you browse Wikipedia, burns tracks to CD, and waters your plants while you are away, the command-line audio players will be a big disappointment to you. But if you are looking for something that plays your audio files without consuming most of your computer’s resources, you’ll have plenty to choose from.

Even before I started working on this laptop, I was using Cplay to play my audio files. Cplay is light, has a clean interface and is very straightforward in its use, and if you’re still unsure how to use it, K.Mandla has a great guide for you. Cplay is really a front-end to other audio players, which you also need to install. I recommend you use mpg123 (and mpg123-alsa so it doesn’t interfere with other applications that use alsa) rather than mpg321 to play mp3 files; on all the computers I have tried this, mpg123 uses almost 20% less cpu than mpg321.

The only downside to cplay is that it doesn’t allow you to control it with commands. To pause or skip to the next track, you need to do so within cplay. I like to keep my audio player in the background, however, and pause it with a global keybinding (Ctrl+Alt+Space) from wherever I am working. I normally use mpd and a front-end for this, but am too lazy to set up a database and constantly update the database whenever I add some music.

I am currently flipping back and forth between cplay and Music On Console (mocp). Mocp uses a little more resources than cplay, but not enough to make a big difference. It has a simple, clean interface the way I like it, and you can easily control it with special commands (mocp -G to toggle play/pause, mocp -f to move to the next track, etc.). Mocp can keep running, as a daemon, after you close it too if you like that.

Movie player

It makes a lot of sense, but before I started using this laptop, I had no idea how much resources are needed to play a video file or a DVD. VLC, Totem and (G)xine made it nearly impossible to have some other resource intensive application running at the same time.

Luckily there is MPlayer. And I don’t mean a graphical front-end for mplayer (such as KMPlayer, SMPlayer or Gnome-mplayer), which seemed as hungry as the other video players with a graphical front-end, but the mplayer base you can use with the command mplayer filename.avi. Playing a video file with mplayer on that laptop uses less than a third of the resources any of the graphical players use!

Mplayer, without a graphical front-end, offers a host of additional features many of the graphical clients lack. Since there is no graphical interface, you need to navigate and play the video file with your keyboard. The right and left arrows forward and rewind 10 seconds, up and down forward and rewind 1 minute, pageup and pagedown forward and rewind 10 minutes, p pauses or unpauses the video, etc. You can adjust the play speed (with the [ and ] keys), and — one of the greatest features — adjust the audio delay with the + and – keys.

Email client

In my undergraduate days, before I had a computer I used the computer of my room mate, which ran a version of Suse (if I remember correctly). According to him there was only one good email client and that was pine, so I was forced to use that to handle my emails. After an initial period of frustration, I got used to the interface and the keybindings and liked the simplicity of it. However, when I got my first computer (running Windows), I replaced pine with Netscape and later Opera, which I still use this day for email.

Pine has since been transformed into Alpine, which is now once more my email client. It’s interface is simple, as are its keybindings, and it is a lot easier to set up or work with than mutt.

I use Gmail, and am able to access my Gmail with IMAP through Alpine. This guide was helpful to set it up, and this guide told me how to get Gmail labels to appear as folders in Alpine.

If you’d like a spell checker in Alpine, you can install Aspell (with the dictionary files of your language) and set the speller= option in ~/.pinerc to speller=aspell –mode=email check. Ctrl+T will then launch the spell checker.

RSS reader

I’ve finally decided an RSS reader is useful. I never really saw the need to use one until I started using this laptop, and realised that most browsers are resource intensive and that I could minimize their use by using an RSS reader to read most of the blogs and news-sites I normally frequent. It took me a while to find something I liked, though.

Raggle is recommended again and again, but I found it clunky. The interface is too complicated for me (I don’t need to see three different windows at the same time), and it used quite some resources on this computer. Snownews had a great clean interface, but only showed the first few sentences of each news item, which defeats the purpose of an RSS reader for me. Newsbeuter was a good alternative, but ultimately Canto, a new feed reader won my heart.

Canto was born out of NRSS and has everything I like. It is light, has a sober interface (I really don’t need to see all the links within blog posts), it has customizable keybindings, and it is simple to use and setup. The documentation on the website is great, and the IRC channel is very friendly and helpful.

If you run Canto on Ubuntu, you may want to install Debian’s python-feedparser package, as the Ubuntu version still has a bug that doesn’t go well with WordPress feeds (instead of the post titles, you’ll see the author’s name).

Web browser

I’ll be honest. Command-line browsers are not really my thing. I occasionally use Elinks, but it most websites are not made for text browsers, and text browsers easily irritate me.

After experimenting with the graphical browsers on this laptop — Epiphany (reasonable, but still a little slow), Kazehakase (which crashed a bit too often), Dillo (nice and fast, but a little too simple), Firefox (too heavy for this laptop) — I returned to the best browser on earth: Opera.

Opera is the fastest and lightest graphical browser I used on this laptop (not considering Dillo). I first went through this list and turned of everything I don’t use, and installed the new Flash 10, which is a lot lighter than version 9.

With all these command-line applications I rarely need to use the mouse, so I was glad to found out “Vimperator for Opera”. It isn’t as polished as the standard Firefox Vimperator plugin, but after modifying the Vimperator keyboard layout for Opera, I now have a browser that I can control entirely from the keyboard. The only weakness is the poor implementation of one of Vimperator’s greatest features: the hint mode, which helps you to navigate links. Unfortunately, you need Javascript on for it to work (I normally turn it off), and you can only open links in new tabs. I therefore haven’t given up on my mouse just yet, but at least I can minimize its use enormously.

~ ~ ~

After a little experimenting and exploration I now have a fully functional computer, than runs fast and can do a lot more than people expect. I pains me to see people throw away computers with similar specs (or even better!) that are still fully functional, but are ‘slow’ compared to the new computers that are produced today. If this computer was good enough for general use 8 years ago, why would it not be good enough for general use today? People sometimes laugh when they see my battered old laptop case, but are impressed by the speed and power of the applications that I run on it.

Here is a question to all of my kind hearted readers with some knowledge of programming. :-)

I’m one of those users that loves the dock in Openbox. For nearly as long as I’ve been using Openbox (once I figured out what it really was), I’ve used it to load the few things I normally required from a panel: a clock (initially bbtime and later lal) and a system tray/notification area (always the simple docker). Later I added bbpager to it, and now, inspired by mulberry, created a little dock by combining all the above with bbdock (modified so its default icons are 24×24 in size, rather than the standard 64×64). Here is what it looks like:

bbdock, lal, bbpager and docker

I’d like to do more with the dock, though. Unfortunately, most dockapps are either too big (the standard 64X64 Window Maker squares) or aesthetically not very pleasing, or both. The BB-tools, created to be used with Blackbox, are much nicer and smaller, but rather limited and no longer developed (apart from bbpager, it seems).

For a little while now, I’ve been trying to get more things to display in my dock. I’d like to be able to show my reminders in it (using remind), and possibly even things like current cpu/memory usage (in a more attractive way than the existing dockapps). The things I normally use conky or dzen2 for, in other words.

Wouldn’t it be great if you could load conky into the dock? Or even better, wouldn’t it be great if you could load dzen2 into the dock?

Awesome is able to do something like this, by creating widgets with dzen2 and loading them into the statusbar — though this seems a little less complicated than it would be in Openbox (you can’t autohide or move the widgets around like you can in Openbox’ dock).

I don’t know exactly how something similar would be accomplished in Openbox, or even if it could. Perhaps the dzen2 code could be modified so as to give it the window properties of a dockapp, or perhaps this would be done through a third party application that loads into the dock and into which dzen2 loads, perhaps Openbox itself would need to be modified.

I am no programmer — I know just enough bash to get me around and can only make some very simple modifications to existing code, often through trial and much error, and that is about it. But if you are a competent programmer, you share my enthusiasm for this and are willing to invest some time into it, please do! You’d make this happy Openbox user, and perhaps countless others, even happier. And you might even become famous. ;-)


July 23, 2008

Some of you may use, have used or know of tint task manager (ttm), a simple light weight task list with a pleasant and configurable aesthetic. The project showed very little progress, until someone else (?) decided to hack on the code and come up with an improved version of the task list: tint2.

The improved version added extra configuration abilities as well as drag/drop support, but is clearly intended to be more than just a task list. The latest release, 0.6, added among other things a configurable clock, and launchers seem to be planned. Like some panels, Tint now also automatically sets a margin for it so that other windows cannot overlap it and the task list always remains visible (unfortunately, you can’t make this optional, as far as I can tell, so I cannot use 0.6 for my tabbed desktop effect…)

To install it on Ubuntu Hardy, you’ll need to install the following dependencies: libcairo2-dev libpango1.0-dev libglib2.0-dev libimlib2-dev libxinerama-dev

The configuration file is still fairly straightforward, but contains a lot of extra features over ttm. If you get lost in all the settings, you’ll be happy to know that a manual with pictures (in pdf format) is available on the tint2’s website.

If you like minimalistic configurable panels this is a project to keep an eye on. If they add a system tray and launchers, I’m sure many users will replace pypanel with tint2.

My Openbox keybindings

July 22, 2008

One of Openbox’ great strengths is that you can control every aspect of the window manager with your keyboard, provided you spend some time configuring your keybindings. Since I use my computer extensively to process text, I have configured Openbox such that I only need to use the mouse when I really want to, and don’t have to move away from the keyboard. It speeds things up considerably, once you are used to it!

Below I give all the keybindings I use in Openbox. Some of these keybindings I don’t use very regularly. The ones that I use extensively are those that launch applications (Win+F1-9 to launch applications, or Alt+F1-6 to launch menus or application launchers); those that control the volume (Ctrl-Up/Down) and mpc (Ctrl-Alt + other keys); those to switch windows (Alt-Tab and Win-Tab) or to switch workspace (Ctrl-Alt-Left/Right); those for basic window actions, such as close (Win-A-C), maximize (Win-A-M), iconify (Win-A-I), send to bottom (Win-A-B), etc; those to move windows in the current workspace (Win + some direction key); to move windows to the next workspace (Win-A-N) or previous workspace (Win-A-P); or to follow windows to the next (Win-A-Shift-N) or previous workspace (Win-A-Shift-P).

When I mention “(with osdsh)”, it means that the action that is performed is shown on screen with osdsh. Thus, when I reconfigure Openbox, the message “reconfiguring” on my screen, or when I turn the volume up it says “volume up”. (I know osdsh has a mixer display, but that uses a lot of CPU in Hardy!). When I mention “(with script)” in the launcher section, I launch a script to raise the application if it is already running or to open a new instance if it isn’t. The shutdown and logout keybindings (Win-O-S and Win-O-E) launch a gmessage script that gives me the option to reboot, shutdown, logout, or lock the screen.

As you will see below, I make extensive use of keychains. Keychains are great! They enable me to keep most of my keybindings fairly simple and straightforward: Win-A starts the keychain for window actions (thus ‘Win-A + C’ closes the focused window, and ‘Win-A + N moves it to the next workspace); Win-O governs all the Openbox related actions (Reconfiguring, editing the configuration files, etc.).

I have also posted my current rc.xml file, for those interested. I’m pretty sure there are some additional keybindings in that file (probably duplicate actions) that are not mentioned below; if that is the case they are keybindings I no longer use, but forgot to remove.

	## Launchers and Menus ##
	Alt F1		root menu
	Alt F2		gmrun
	Alt F3		dmenu
	Alt F5		dmenu for configuration files
	Alt F6		client-combined-list
	Win F1		mousepad
	Win F2		notecase
	Win F3		xfce4-terminal (script)
	Win F4		thunar (script)
	Win F5		gmpc
	Win F6		epiphany
	Win F7		ooffice writer
	Win F8		opera (script)
	Win F9		stardict
	Win F10		gedit
	Win F11		gnome-alsamixer
	Win F12		Lock screen (xlock)
	Ctrl Alt Del	htop
	## MPD ##
	Ctrl Alt space	mpc toggle (with osdsh)
	Ctlr Alt Prior	mpc next (with osdsh)
	Ctlr Alt Next	mpc previous (with osdsh)
	## Volume control ##
	Ctrl Up		Volume up (PMC) (with osdsh)
	Ctrl Down	Volume down (PMC) (with osdsh)
	Ctrl Shift Up	Volume up (Master) (with osdsh)
	Ctrl Shift Down	Volume down (Master) (with osdsh)
	Ctrl Alt End	Volume mute (with osdsh)
	## Window actions ##
	Win a		Window actions
		m	Toggle maximize full
		v	Toggle maximize vertical
		h	Toggle maximize horizontal
		i	Iconify
		c	Close
		s	Toggle Shade
		t	Toggle always on top
		b	Send to bottom
		Shift b	Toggle always below
		Shift l	Send to normal layer
		Shift d	Toggle omnipresent
		d	Toggle decorations
		l	Lower, focus to bottom, unfocus
		p	Send to previous workspace
		n	Send to next workspace
		Shift p	Follow to previous workspace
		Shift n	Follow to next workspace
		g	GrowTo
			Left	GrowToEdgeWest
			Right	GrowToEdgeEast
			Down	GrowToEdgeSouth
			Up	GrowToEdgeNorth
		Win space	Show client-menu
	## Openbox ##
	Win o		Openbox actions
		r	Reconfigure (with osdsh)
		c	Edit rc.xml
		m	Edit menu.xml
		s	Shutdown (gmessage)
		e	Exit/logout (gmessage)
		l	Lock screen (xlock)
	## Worspaces ##
	Ctrl Alt Left	Go to the workspace on the left
	Ctrl Alt Right	Go to the workspace on the right
	Alt Shift Left	Send window to the workspace on the left
	Alt Shift Right	Send window to the workspace on the right
	Win Shift F1	Send window to workspace 1
	Win Shift F2	Send window to workspace 2
	Win Shift F3	Send window to workspace 3
	Win d		Show desktop
	## Window switching ##
	Alt Tab		Next window
	Alt Shift Tab	Previous window
	Win Tab		Next window (all desktops)
	Win Shift Tab	Previous window (all desktops)
	## Move Windows ##
	Win Left	Move window left
	Win Right	Move window right
	Win Down	Move window down
	Win Up		Move window up
	Win Prior	Move window to top right corner
	Win Next	Move window to bottom right corner
	Win Home	Move window to top left corner
	Win End		Move window to bottom left corner
	## Resize Windows ##
	Alt Left	Increase left edge
	Alt Right	Increase right edge
	Alt Up		Increase top edge
	Alt Down	Increase bottom edge
	Alt Shift Left	Decrease right edge
	Alt Shift Right	Decrease left edge
	Alt Shift  Up	Decrease bottom edge
	Alt Shift Down	Decrease top edge
	Alt F12		Toggle fullscreen
	Ctrl Alt d	Toggle autohide dock

A “tabbed” desktop

July 21, 2008

K.Mandla has already written about my “tabbed desktop”. Here is a little more information:

To create the effect of a ‘tabbed’ desktop, I have been running tint2 at the top of my screen, covering the window decorations. With the right colour and size settings, you can easily create the appearance of a tabbed desktop.

Hayagriva and my “tabbed” desktop

Two things make this method somewhat practical: First of all, I run most of my applications maximized; smaller, ‘floating’ windows somewhat destroy the tabbed feel of the desktop. Secondly, since tint covers the window decorations and makes it thus unable to close, iconify or shade the window, make it sticky, or send it to another desktop, you should be able to perform these actions with the keyboard, through keybindings.

Since K.Mandla’s post, I’ve made a small adjustment to the desktop: I added a clock and remind to my top task bar, using dzen2 (I initially also had a volume bar in it, but dropped that). My dmenu scripts also load in that exact area, using the same colour settings and covering both tint and dzen.

If you’re interested, this is my dzen2 script, and this is my tintrc. The Openbox and Gtk theme I use is Bygone (somewhat modified).

I finally decided to try out Awesome, the window manager all the cool kids are using. Awesome is a tiling window manager, like Wmii or Xmonad, and is very light and stable. In the past I have briefly experimented with Wmii and Xmonad, which I both liked but never found really practical for my needs. So far I’m rather liking Awesome.

My Awesome setup

There is plenty of good information available on Awesome. Shearn89‘s introduction to awesome on the Ubuntuforums, the Awesome Wiki, Calmar‘s files, and the documentation that comes with Awesome have been particularly helpful for me. I don’t intend to replicate here all of the information that those sources contain. The following only mentions (a) a few things I wanted to figure out, but didn’t find any info on, or (b) some things I did with Awesome. What follows is not meant as a guide, but just as a document explaining how I made my first slow steps with Awesome, that might be useful to others new to this window manager. Don’t expect a complete overview of Awesome, nor any revolutionary insights ;-)

I installed Awesome 2.3.1, building it from source. All of what follows works with this version. The syntax of the configuration file tends to change with every release, so some of this may not work with earlier (or later) versions of Awesome. Only Awesome 2.0 is in the Hardy Ubuntu repositories; 2.3.1 is available in Intrepid.

Though tiling is neat and sometimes handy, I find it rather inconvenient to work with most of the time. I have a small screen and mainly use applications that are best viewed full-screen (Opera, OpenOffice, Stardict, etc.). I mainly control my window manager from the keyboard, and the tiling window managers offer great keyboard control, but I also look to work with the mouse. This determined the way I configured Awesome: I limit the tiling layout as default to one of my five tags, added window decorations and a root menu, and used some more ‘traditional’ keybindings for Awesome actions (Alt-Tab to switch windows, Ctrl+Alt+arrows to move between tags, etc.).


The syntax of the ~/.awesomerc file is fairly straightforward, but can easily be intimidating for new users. If you are unsure of the options you can use, have a look at the commented default ~/.awesomerc on the Wiki (or if you know French, see this helpful page).

To give you an idea of what I did with it, I have uploaded my ~/.awesomerc file. The keybindings are largely those I use in other window managers (Ctrl+Alt + left and right arrows to move workspaces/tags; Alt-Tab to switch between windows; Ctrl+Alt+r to restart the window manager; Alt+F2 for gmrun; Alt+F3 for awesome-menu/dmenu; Windows+F1-12 to launch applications; Ctrl + up and down arrows to change the volume levels; Ctrl+Alt+space to play/pause mpd, etc.)

The structure of the configuration file is relatively simple:

<section> [name]
<option> = <value>

<section> [name]
<option> = <value>



Examples of a <section> are mouse, rules, keys, screen, etc. Most sections can have subsections: statusbar, for example, is a subsection of screen, tasklist is a subsection of statusbar, and in my configuration file tasklist has a mouse subsection. You can have more than one instance of some sections: if you use two screens, you can have two screen sections, if you want more than one statusbar you can add more statusbar sections, and if you use widgets, you’ll probably use more than one iconbox or textbox. If you can use more than one section of a kind, you’ll have to specify a name for the section: thus in the default configuration file, screen is called “0”, statusbar is called “mystatusbar”, etc. Some sections, like mouse, key, rules, or layout, can only have one of its kind and therefore do not need a name, though the mouse, key, and styles sections can also be added as subsections to other sections, to govern the style and the mouse and key behaviour of those sections (thus, if you’d want awesome to do xyz when you right click on the tasklist, you would add a mouse section to the tasklist, or if you want the taglist to have a blue background when unfocused, you would add a style section to the taglist section). Examples given below might clarify this more.

<option> and <value> configure the section they are in. They can be colour settings, mouse actions, key actions, position, etc, and are sometimes unique to the section they belong to. Have a look at the default configuration file for some idea of what these can be. All the options as well as all the (sub)sections must be placed within { }. Make sure you keep that structure intact or your configuration file won’t load.

It is easy to make a typo, accidentally delete a bracket, or misplace a particular option into the file. If your configuration file contains errors, Awesome will load the default configuration file when it restarts. You can check for errors in the file before you restart Awesome with the command awesome -k.

Most of the key and mouse bindings should be straightforward: you specify the modifier key(s) and the regular key or mouse button that trigger the actions. If you want to launch applications, use the command spawn with the argument exec application_name. If you want to use Awesome actions, you use whatever action you want to use as the command, possibly with an argument (e.g. command = “tag_setlayout” arg = “+1”, to cycle forwards through the tags), as shown in the keys and mouse section further down in the configuration file). If you want to perform more than one action with a single key (or mouse) press, you’d use the following syntax (as I did with mpc and osdsh):

key { modkey = {"mod keyname"} key = "keyname" command = "spawn" arg = "exec command_one|command_two" }

Autostarting applications

Awesome doesn’t have a session manager. When you login, Awesome is launched and that is it. If you want to autostart applications, you could add them to your ~/.xinitrc, or (if you use a display manager like GDM and regularly switch between window managers) create an autostart script. I modified the Awesome.desktop file (in /usr/share/xsessions/) to load a script that is saved in my home directory, where I can easily add whatever applications I’d like to autostart.

Here is what my /usr/share/xsessions/Awesome.desktop looks like:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Awesome window manager

The script is a simple bash script. Here is what it looks like:

export OOO_FORCE_DESKTOP=gnome
nitrogen --restore &
/home/urukrama/.config/osdsh/osdsh_script_awesome &
#Status bar clock & remind
/home/urukrama/.awesome/ &
/home/urukrama/.awesome/ &
thunar --daemon &
unclutter -idle 8 -root &
exec /usr/local/bin/awesome

If you decide to use a similar method, make sure both files are executable. There is more info on the awesome-clock and awesome-remind scripts below.

Statusbar and widgets

I love what you can do with Awesome’s statusbar. If you’ve visited desktop threads on the Ubuntu or Arch forums long enough you’ve probably seen plenty of screenshots of Awesome showing statistics for network traffic, battery status, cpu and memory usage, weather, disk usage, mpd, and whatnot. A lot of this is adequately documented on the Awesome Wiki, so there is no need to repeat that information here. (Besides, I don’t find all those stats either useful or aesthetically pleasing, but to each his own).

The statusbar is relatively easy to edit, once you’ve understood the ~/.awesomerc syntax. Awesome comes by default with a single statusbar, position at the top of the screen, but you can easily add more or move that to the bottom, left or right of the screen. If you want to create an additional statusbar, just create an additional statusbar section in the configuration file, and populate it with the widgets you’d like it to display. Make sure you name it differently than the current statusbar (the default is named mystatusbar)!

By default Awesome displays the following widgets on the statusbar: the taglist, layoutinfo, tasklist, and the awesome logo (an iconbox). You can move these around as you please (or remove them, or move them to a different statusbar). The widgets are displayed on the statusbar in the order that they appear in the ~/.awesomerc file.

The widgets will follow the colour and font settings of the main style (defined in the “style” section, at the beginning of the config file), unless you specify different settings for a widget. To do so, add a line like this to the widget’s section:

style { fg = "#B23308" font = "nu 8"}

This will use the fg colour as well as the font specified here, and use the defaults for everything else. If you want to change the colours of a widget that can have both focused and normal colours (like the tasklist), add something like the following:

normal { fg = "#ECDDA6" bg = "#000000" border = "#000000" }
focus { fg = "#B23308" bg = "#000000" border = "#000000" }

I wanted to add only two widgets to the statusbar: a clock and a widget that displays my reminders (using the application remind). Here is how I did it.

Clock and calendar

For the clock, I modified a script found on the Wiki, which I saved as ~/.awesome/awesome-clock (and made executable with chmod +x). Whatever script you use, and wherever you save it, make sure it is always called “awesome-name_of_the_widget_in_awesomerc“. I added the following lines to the very end of the statusbar section of my ~/.awesomerc (to have the clock display in the far right of the statusbar):

textbox clock
align = "right"
style { fg = "#B23308" bg = "#000000" }

With this in Awesome’s configuration file, whenever I load the script ~/.awesome/awesome-clock, the clock will load in the taskbar, at the position the above section occurs in the configuration file. To have it load whenever I log into awesome, I added the script to my Awesome autostart script (~/.awesome/awesome-clock &).

But I wanted more than this. Wouldn’t it be neat to have a calendar built into this clock widget? Sure, and luckily there is dzen2, which I used to get a script to launch a calendar. I added the following two lines to the clock widget in my ~/.awesomerc (make sure you keep the { } structure intact!):

textbox clock
align = "right"
style { fg = "#B23308" bg = "#000000" }

mouse {
button = “1”
command = “spawn”
arg = “exec /home/urukrama/.scripts/dzen_calendar_awesome” }
mouse {
button = “3”
command = “spawn”
arg = “exec osmo” }

This launches a dzen calendar script when I left click on the clock, and Osmo when I right click on it.

My calendar script

You can add such lines (with or without a key modifier such as Shift, Mod4, etc.) to any of the widgets (you’ll see that the tasklist and the layoutinfo widgets already have some).


I use remind to show today’s events of my religious calendar, and I wanted to show those reminders in the statusbar, next to the clock. To do so, I modified the above script to display today’s reminder, saved it as ~/.awesome/awesome-remind, made it executable, created a textbox widget called “remind” before my clock widget, and added the appropriate line to my autostart script.

I also wanted to see a list of upcoming reminders when I right click on today’s reminders, and created a script with dzen2 to accomplish this. This script shows the reminders for the coming four weeks, with today’s reminder in red (this page explaining how sed works was extremely useful to get this done!). Only ten lines are shown, but you can scroll up and down in the list to view the other lines. Right clicking on the list makes it disappear.

My reminders

This is what the appropriate section in my ~/.awesomerc looks like:

textbox remind {
align = "right"
style { fg = "#ECDDA6" bg = "#000000" }
{ button = "1"
command = "spawn"
arg = "exec /home/urukrama/.scripts/dzen_remind_awesome" }

Layouts and Tags

Awesome has a lot of different layouts: tiled, left tiled, top tiled, bottom tiled, spiral, floating, maximized and dwindle. I don’t have any use for many of these (I only use tiled, maximized, and float), and having them all can be rather annoying if you want to quickly switch between two layouts. If you don’t want to use a particular layout, you can remove them or comment them out from the “layout” section. Only the layouts that are specified in this section will be used by awesome. You can cycle through these layouts, either by clicking the layoutinfo widget in the statusbar or by pressing Mod4+space; the order in which you cycle through them is the order specified in this section of your ~/.awesomerc.

Tags are like virtual workspaces, but better. Each tag can be set with a default layout, in the “tag” section of your ~/.awesomerc, but their uses are greater than that. Within a tag all the windows that have that tag are shown. The great part of it is that you can assign more than one tag to an application or window, so that it shows up in both tags. If you want an application to appear in more than one tag, you have to set up a rule (in the rules section). This is what it would look like if you want to thunar to show on both tag ‘one’ and ‘five’:

rule { name = "thunar" tags = "one|five" }

I’ve also configured Awesome such that if I middle click on a tag name, the currently selected window is moved to that tag. Here is the relevant portion of my ~/.awesomerc (in the taglist section of the statusbar section):

mouse { button = "3" command = "tag_toggleview" }

If you want to view the windows of all tags in a single tag, use the action tag_view (assigned to Mod4+Print in my configuration). The action tag_toggleview works similarly, but doesn’t show the applications that are on the current tag. You can undo both actions by clicking on a tag name and triggering the action you have configured to that mouse action (thus, in my setup, middle clicking will move the active window to that tag; left clicking will just move to that tag; etc.)

To have an open window appear on all tags, use either the client_tag action, or the client_toggletag action if you want to be able to easily undo it.

You can easily create new tags whenever you want, with the tag_create action. Thus the following action creates a new tag called “six”:

key { modkey = {"Mod4", "Control"} key = "F6" command = "tag_create" arg = "six" }

Root menu

I’ve been using Openbox for way too long to be comfortable now in any window manager without a root menu that pops up when I right click on the desktop. :-)

If you’d like a right-click root menu in Awesome, like you have in Openbox and Fluxbox, you can use 9menu, a component of 9wm that can be easily used with other window managers. To use it, you’ll need to create a menu file (here is mine), and launch it with the following command:

9menu -popup -bg "#000000" -fg "#F2EDD7" -font "-*-nu-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*" -teleport -file /path/to/your/custom/9menurc

Change the bg and fg colours as well as the font to whatever you prefer. For more options with 9menu, check its man page.

To make things easier, create a script to launch this: create an empty file called 9menu_script (I keep it in ~/.awesome), add #!/bin/bash at the top of that file followed by the above command, save it, and make the script executable (chmod +x /path/to/9menu_script). (The advantage of using a script, rather than adding the command directly into your ~/.awesomerc, is that if you have multiple instances of it in your ~/.awesomerc, you will only have to change its settings once when you want to change its colours and/or font to match a different theme.)

To launch 9menu when you right click on the desktop, find the following in the mouse section of your ~/.awesomerc:

root { button = "3" command = "spawn" arg = "exec xterm" }

This launches an xterm when you right click on the desktop. Change that to this:

root { button = "3" command = "spawn" arg = "exec /path/to/your/9menu_script" }


If you’d also like to have the menu bound to Alt+F1, as some window managers have it, add the following to the keys section:

key { modkey = {"Mod1"} key = "F1" command = "spawn" arg = "exec /path/to/your/9menu_script" }

If you’d like the menu to launch from the Awesome icon on the statusbar, edit the “iconbox logo” section in the default configuration file as follows:

iconbox logo
image = "/usr/local/share/awesome/icons/awesome16.png"
{ button = "1"
command = "spawn"
arg = "exec /path/to/your/9menu_script" }

(The default launches Awesome’s man page: xterm -e man awesome).

You could also use dzen2 to create a root or panel menu (see here and here). It is a lot harder to accomplish this with dzen2 than it is with 9menu, but you can do a lot more with it: submenus, more colours, icons, etc. I tried it and had some success, but gave up as I didn’t think it worth the trouble.

Window decorations

By default, Awesome does not use window decorations, but you can easily add those. In the screen section, add something like the following:

position = "top"
text_align = "left"
normal { fg = "#ECDDA6" bg = "#000000" border = "#000000" }
focus { fg = "#B23308" bg = "#000000" border = "#000000" }
height = "13"

The position of the titlebar can be top, bottom, left or right.

If you want to disable the titlebar for some applications, or have some applications with the titlebar in a different position, you can specify that in the “rules” section: specify the application, and use the following option titlebar { position = off } (you can replace “off” with any position you’d like).

Awesome does not support buttons on the titlebar, like echinus does, but having the titlebar for some applications is handy when you are in floating mode, as it allows you to easily move windows around with the mouse. In the mouse section you can tell Awesome what to do when you press a particular mouse button on the titlebar. I make it close the window when I middle click on it, as well as toggle maximize fully, vertically and horizontally when I press Mod4 and left, middle or right click on it. Note that when you maximize a window with togglemax, it looses its window decorations until you unmaximize it again.


And finally, there is Awesome’s menu. It resembles dmenu, though it isn’t as refined: it doesn’t automatically select the first match of what you type, and doesn’t search for matches within a word (‘unar’ does not bring up ‘thunar’ for example, as it does in dmenu). Nevertheless, it is handy, and the Wiki explains some of its potential.

I initially used it, but have now gone back to the much loved dmenu.

Inspired by this, I created a dmenu script that gives me easy access to my most used configuration files (Openbox’ rc.xml and menu.xml, conkyrc, gtkrc-2.0, etc.). The script is entirely based on my source of inspiration; the only ‘substantial’ thing I did (apart from creating all the necessary aliases) was to make it window manager independent and remove the Awesome components. The script is probably quite rough, and the same could perhaps have been accomplished in a simpler and more elegant way, but it works. :-)

If you want to give it a try, download the script, saved it in a safe location (like ~/.scripts), make it executable (chmod +x ~/.scripts/config_dmenu_script), and map it to a keybinding in your window manager (I use Alt+F5).

You will need to adjust the script to be able to use it. All the aliases direct dmenu to the location of these configuration files on my computer; they won’t be located in the same place on yours (unless you are also named urukrama ;-) ). I use mousepad as my default text editor; replace it with whatever text editor you prefer. You can also adjust dmenu’s settings (colours, font, position, etc.) on line 45.

Some Pypanel tips

May 31, 2008

Judging from the screenshots that are posted on the Ubuntuforums and the Arch Linux forums, Pypanel is probably the most popular panels among Openbox users. Pypanel is no longer developed, and the latest version of Pypanel (2.4) is from 2005 (though a few patches have appeared recently; see here, here, and here). It doesn’t offer nearly as many features as some of the other panels, and doesn’t have any graphical tools to change its preferences. But its simple aesthetics and lightness have captured the attention of many (including me).

Configuring Pypanel is relatively easy: it all takes place in a single file, ~/.pypanelrc. Most of the settings in that configuration file should be fairly straightforward, and the default is well explained. You can specify the colours, fonts, looks, the size and position of the panel, set application launchers, modify the clock, etc. Restart Pypanel and the changes will be visible.

What many users don’t know, however, is that the clock and desktop sections of the panel can also be configured (beyond how they look). You can specify a number of actions that are performed when you perform a mouse action on it (left/right/middle click, scroll up and down). The default actions involve changing workspaces or iconifying all open windowns and showing the desktop. The type of actions Pypanel can perform, as well as the codes for the various mouse actions are specified towards the end of the pypanelrc file, under “Button Event Function Definitions”. But there is more to it than specified there.

The actions are of the following syntax: two letters, signifying the type of action that follows, followed by a dot, and the action name. pp stands for a Pypanel action; os (presumably) for an operating system action (e.g. pp.showDesktop()). The internal Pypanel actions are those specified in the default configuration file. They are actions like focusing a window, raising a window, minimizing it, changing the workspace, hiding the panel, and so on. Note that the showDesktop() action only works if your window manager supports minimizing all applications at once; the action will, for example, not work in Pekwm. The os actions can be used to launch applications. If you don’t want to specify an action you can use the command pass.

Here are a few examples. Below is the clock section of my current pypanelrc. Left-clicking on the clock launches a dzen2 script (modified from this) that displays a calendar; right-clicking on it launches Osmo, a personal organizer.

def clockButtonEvent(pp, button):
""" Button event handler for the panel's clock object """

if button == 1:
os.system("/home/urukrama/.scripts/dzen_calendar &")
elif button == 2:
elif button == 3:
os.system("osmo &")
elif button == 4:
elif button == 5:

Here is a screenshot of the dzen2 calendar (the pager on the right to Pypanel is netwmpager):

Similarly, the desktop area of the panel can also be used to trigger certain actions. You can, for example, use that area to launch an applications menu. If you’d like to use the menu of your window manager, you can use xte or xdotool to launch it. Alternatively, you could use something like Tabble (without the window decorations), or Apwal for a drawer-like effect.


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